LUTEIN Benefits:

LUTEIN® May increase Macular Pigment Density and Vision

 (Support studies listed in the Scientific Studies)

  • Lutein® has been used to support Eye Health for years. 

  • Helps prevent age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as well as increase visual acuity and function (myopia, presbyopia), contrast sensitivity and night vision.   


Lutein® (Latin luteus, “yellow”) is a carotenoid, a naturally occurring pigment found in the photosynthetic energy cells (chloroplasts) of plants and, in the animals that eat these plants. Its name is derived from the vegetable “carrot” to which it gives its typical orange color. Even the pink color of flamingos and salmon as well as the red in lobsters is due to carotenoids.


Lutein® is found dominant in some yellow flowers (i.e. dandelions) and carrots, leafy green vegetables (i.e. spinach, turnips, collard greens) and is partially responsible for the coloring seen in egg yolks. The lighter the yolk color, the less Lutein® it contains. We often do not recognize Lutein® because it is masked by the “green” in plants but with the changing of the seasons, the yellow that are seen in autumn leaves is in fact Lutein®.

Lutein® is yellow because it absorbs blue light as well as solar radiation, protecting the plant’s photosensitive mechanisms. This is extremely important for humans (as well as other animals) because it is found concentrated in the macula and retina, the layer of cells that lines the inner eye. It therefore protects the eye much as it protects the plant from harmful light and radiation. It also acts as an anti-oxidant, a scavenger or “garbage man” for loose reactive oxygen molecules that act in the same manner as oxidation which causes metals to rust.

There has been a plethora of peer-reviewed and published human clinical studies over the past decade, and beyond, which clearly show that Lutein® is of significant beneficial to the eyes. It helps prevent age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as well as increase visual acuity and function (myopia, presbyopia), contrast sensitivity and night vision. It has been associated with a reduced risk for glaucoma and cataracts and even retinopathy – retinal damage seen in premature babies.

LUTEIN Science:

Ingredient: LUTEIN® - Works Cited:


(1) Meyers KJ, Mares JA, Igo RP Jr et al: Genetic evidence for role of carotenoids in age-related macular degeneration in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Jan 29; 55(1):587-99.


(2) Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Research Group, Chew EY, Clemons TE, Sangiovanni JP et al: Secondary analyses of the effects of lutein/zeaxanthin on age-related macular degeneration progression: AREDS2 report No. 3. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb; 132(2):142-9.


(3) Wang JJ, Buitendijk GH, Rochtchina E et al: Genetic susceptibility, dietary antioxidants, and long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration in two populations. Ophthalmology. 2014 Mar; 121(3):667-75.


(4) Kesse-Guyot E, Andreeva VA, Ducros V et al: Carotenoid-rich dietary patterns during midlife and subsequent cognitive function. Br J Nutr. 2014 Mar 14; 111(5):915-23.


(5) Zou ZY, Xu XR, Lin XM et al: Effects of lutein and lycopene on carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2014 Feb; 111(3):474-80.


(6) Slattery ML, Lundgreen A, Wolff RK: Dietary influence on MAPK-signaling pathways and risk of colon and rectal cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2013; 65(5):729-38.


(7) Lorenzoni F, Giampietri M, Ferri G: Lutein administration to pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus is associated to a decrease of oxidative stress in newborns. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013 Oct; 29(10):901-3.


(8) Wang MX, Jiao JH, Li ZY et al: Lutein supplementation reduces plasma lipid peroxidation and C-reactive protein in healthy nonsmokers. Atherosclerosis. 2013 Apr; 227(2):380-5.


(9) Murray IJ, Makridaki M, van der Veen RL et al: Lutein supplementation over a one-year period in early AMD might have a mild beneficial effect on visual acuity: the CLEAR study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Mar 11; 54(3):1781-8.


(10) Yao Y, Qiu QH, Wu XW et al: Lutein supplementation improves visual performance in Chinese drivers: 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutrition. 2013 Jul-Aug; 29(7-8):958-64.


(11) Huang YM, Yan SF, Ma L et al: Serum and macular responses to multiple xanthophyll supplements in patients with early age-related macular degeneration. Nutrition. 2013 Feb; 29(2):387-92.


(12) Meinke MC, Friedrich A, Tscherch K et al: Influence of dietary carotenoids on radical scavenging capacity of the skin and skin lipids. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2013 Jun; 84(2):365-73.


(13) Beatty S, Chakravarthy U, Nolan JM et al: Secondary outcomes in a clinical trial of carotenoids with coantioxidants versus placebo in early age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2013 Mar; 120(3):600-6.


(14) Xu XR, Zou ZY, Xiao X et al: Effects of lutein supplement on serum inflammatory cytokines, ApoE and lipid profiles in early atherosclerosis population. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2013 Feb 22; 20(2):170-7.


(15) Berrow EJ, Bartlett HE, Eperjesi F et al: The effects of a lutein-based supplement on objective and subjective measures of retinal and visual function in eyes with age-related maculopathy – a randomized controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2013 Jun; 109(11):2008-14.


(16) Ros MM, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Kampman E et al: Plasma carotenoids and vitamin C concentrations and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct; 96(4):902-10.


(17) Ma L, Yan SF, Huang YM et al: Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2012 Nov; 119(11):2290-7.


(18) Ma L, Dou HL, Huang YM et al: Improvement of retinal function in early age-related macular degeneration after lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 Oct; 154(4):625-634.


(19) Giaconi JA, Yu F, Stone KL et al: The association of consumption of fruits/vegetables with decreased risk of glaucoma among older African-American women in the study of osteoporotic fractures. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 Oct; 154(4):635-44.


(20) Manzoni P, Guardione R, Bonetti P et al: Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation in preterm very low-birthweight neonates in neonatal intensive care units: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Am J Perinatol. 2013 Jan; 30(1):25-32.


(21) Tanito M, Obana A, Gohto Y et al: Macular pigment density changes in Japanese individuals supplemented with lutein or zeaxanthin: quantification via resonance Raman spectrophotometry and autofluorescence imaging. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2012 Sep; 56(5):488-96.


(22) Landrum J, Bone R, Mendez V et al: Comparison of dietary supplementation with lutein diacetate and lutein: a pilot study of the effects on serum and macular pigment. Acta Biochim Pol. 2012; 59(1):167-9.


(23) Graydon R, Hogg RE, Chakravarthy U et al: The effect of lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich foods v. supplements on macular pigment level and serological markers of endothelial activation, inflammation and oxidation: pilot studies in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2012 Jul; 108(2):334-42.


(24) Piermarocchi S, Saviano S, Parisi V et al: Carotenoids in Age-related Maculopathy Italian Study (CARMIS): two-year results of a randomized study. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2012 Mar-Apr; 22(2):216-25.


(25) Thyagarajan B, A Meyer K, Smith LJ et al: Serum carotenoid concentrations predict lung function evolution in young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov; 94(5):1211-8.


(26) Shvetsov YB, Hernandez BY, Wilkens LR et al: Plasma micronutrients and the acquisition and clearance of anal human papillomavirus infection: the Hawaii HPV cohort study. Cancer Res. 2010 Dec 1; 70(23):9787-97.


(27) Berson EL, Rosner B, Sandberg M et al: Clinical trial of lutein in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 Apr; 128(4):403-11.


(28) Perrone S, Longini M, Marzocchi B et al: Effects of lutein on oxidative stress in the term newborn: a pilot study. Neonatology. 2010; 97(1):36-40.


(29) Cho H, Kim MK, Lee JK et al: Relationship of serum antioxidant micronutrients and sociodemographic factors to cervical neoplasia: a case-control study. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009; 47(8):1005-12.


(30) Ma L, Lin XM, Zou ZY et al: A 12-week lutein supplementation improves visual function in Chinese people with long- term computer display light exposure. Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul; 102(2):186-90.


(31) McCall DO, McGartland CP, McKinley MC et al: Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables improves microvascular function in hypertensive subjects in a dose-dependent manner. Circulation. 2009 Apr 28; 119(16):2153-60.


(32) Mignone LI, Giovannucci E, Newcomb PA et al: Dietary carotenoids and the risk of invasive breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009 Jun 15; 124(12):2929-37.


(33) Johnson EJ, McDonald K, Caldarella SM et al: Cognitive findings of an exploratory trial of docosahexaenoic acid and lutein supplementation in older women. Nutr Neurosci. 2008 Apr; 11(2):75-83.


(34) Johnson EJ, Chung HY, Caldarella SM et al: The influence of supplemental lutein and docosahexaenoic acid on serum, lipoproteins, and macular pigmentation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May; 87(5):1521-9.


(35) Dherani M, Murthy GV, Gupta SK et al: Blood levels of vitamin C, carotenoids and retinol are inversely associated with cataract in a North Indian population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Aug; 49(8):3328-35.


(36) Moeller SM, Voland R, Tinker L et al: Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, an Ancillary Study of the Women’s Health Initiative. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Mar; 126(3):354-64.


(37) Palombo P, Fabrizi G, Ruocco V et al: Beneficial long-term effects of combined oral/topical antioxidant treatment with the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin on human skin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2007; 20(4):199-210.


(38) Hozawa A, Jacobs DR Jr, Steffes MW et al: Relationships of circulating carotenoid concentrations with several markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)/Young Adult Longitudinal Trends in Antioxidants (YALTA) study. Clin Chem. 2007 Mar; 53(3):447-55.


(39) Zhao X, Aldini G, Johnson EJ et al: Modification of lymphocyte DNA damage by carotenoid supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan; 83(1):163-9.


(40) Kato I, Ren J, Visscher DW et al: Nutritional predictors for cellular nipple aspirate fluid: Nutrition and Breast Health Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 May; 97(1):33-9.


(41) Coyne T, Ibiebele TI, Baade PD et al: Diabetes mellitus and serum carotenoids: findings of a population-based study in Queensland, Australia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep; 82(3):685-93.


(42) Morganti P, Fabrizi G, Bruno C: Protective effects of oral antioxidants on skin and eye function. Skinmed. 2004 Nov-Dec; 3(6):310-6.


(43) Richer S, Stiles W, Statkute L et al: Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial). Optometry. 2004 Apr; 75(4):216-30.

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